Medical curriculum reform in North America, 1765 to the present

A cognitive science perspective

Frank J. Papa, Peter H. Harasym

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleResearchpeer-review

101 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Since 1765, five major curricular reform movements have catalyzed significant changes in North American medical education. This article describes each reform movement in terms of its underlying educational practices and principles, inherent instructional problems, and the innovations that were carried forward. When considering the motivating factors underlying these reform movements, a unifying theme gradually emerges: increasing interest in, attention to, and understanding of the knowledge-base structures and cognitive processes that characterize and distinguish medical experts and novices. Concurrent with this emerging theme is a growing realization that medical educators must call upon and utilize the literature, research methods, and theoretical perspectives of cognitive science if future curricular reform efforts are to move forward efficiently and effectively. The authors hope that the discussion and perspective offered herein will broaden, stimulate, and challenge educators as they strive to create the reform movements that will define 21st-century medical education.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)154-164
Number of pages11
JournalAcademic Medicine
Volume74
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Jan 1999

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Cognitive Science
reform movement
North America
Medical Education
Curriculum
curriculum
reform
Knowledge Bases
present
science
educator
educational practice
Research
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education
expert
innovation

Cite this

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Medical curriculum reform in North America, 1765 to the present : A cognitive science perspective. / Papa, Frank J.; Harasym, Peter H.

In: Academic Medicine, Vol. 74, No. 2, 01.01.1999, p. 154-164.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleResearchpeer-review

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