Malaria control in Botswana, 2008-2012: The path towards elimination

Chihanga Simon, Kentse Moakofhi, Tjantilili Mosweunyane, Haruna Baba Jibril, Bornapate Nkomo, Mpho Motlaleng, Davies Sedisa Ntebela, Emmanuel Chanda, Ubydul Haque

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36 Scopus citations


Background: Botswana has made substantial progress towards malaria elimination across the country. This work assessed interventions and epidemiological characteristics of malaria in Botswana, during a period of decreasing transmission intensity. Methods. National passive malaria surveillance data for five years (2008-2012) were analysed. A district-level, random effects model with Poisson regression was used to explore the association between malaria cases and coverage with long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). Malaria cases were mapped to visualize spatio-temporal variation in malaria for each year. Results: Within five years, a reduction in malaria prevalence (approximately 98%) and number of deaths (12 to three) was observed. Between 2008 and 2012, 237,050 LLINs were distributed and 596,979 rooms were sprayed with insecticides. Coverage with LLINs and IRS was not uniformly distributed over the study period and only targeted the northern districts with a high malaria burden. The coverage of IRS was associated with a reduction in malaria cases. Conclusions: Botswana has made significant strides towards its goal of country-wide elimination of malaria. A major challenge in the future will be prevention and management of imported malaria infections from neighbouring countries. In order to accurately monitor progress towards the elimination goal, the malaria control programme (NMP) should strengthen the reporting and capturing of data at household and individual level. Systematic, periodic operational research to feedback the NMP will help to guide and achieve elimination.

Original languageEnglish
Article number458
JournalMalaria Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - 20 Dec 2013


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