Magnetically active Fe3O4 nanorods loaded with tissue plasminogen activator for enhanced thrombolysis

Jiangnan Hu, Weijie Huang, Shengwei Huang, Qichuan ZhuGe, Kunlin Jin, Yiping Zhao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations


Systemic thrombolysis with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) remains the only proven treatment that is effective in improving the clinical outcome of patients with acute ischemic stroke. However, thrombolytic therapy has some major limitations such as hemorrhage, neurotoxicity, and the short time window for the treatment. In this study, we designed iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanorods loaded with 6% tPA, which could be released within ~30 min. The Fe3O4 nanorods could be targeted to blood clots under magnetic guidance. In addition, the release of tPA could be significantly increased using an external rotating magnetic field, which subsequently resulted in a great improvement in the thrombolytic efficiency. Systematic and quantitative studies revealed the fundamental physical processes involved in the enhanced thrombolysis, while the in vitro thrombolysis assay showed that the proposed strategy could improve thrombolysis and recanalization rates and reduce the risk of tPA-mediated hemorrhage in vivo. Such a strategy will be very useful for the treatment of ischemic stroke and other deadly thrombotic diseases such as myocardial infarction and pulmonary embolism in clinical settings. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2652-2661
Number of pages10
JournalNano Research
Issue number9
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2016


  • drug delivery
  • enhanced thrombolysis
  • iron oxide
  • magnetic nanorods
  • tissue plasminogen activator


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