Low copy number typing has yet to achieve "general acceptance"

Bruce Budowle, Arthur J. Eisenberg, Angela van Daal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


When processing a small number of starting DNA templates during the PCR, exaggerated stochastic sampling effects will occur, and because of increased sensitivity of detection there is a concomitant increased risk of observing contamination. Caution should be taken with using LCN typing and there should be awareness of the pitfalls that have been encountered by some users of LCN typing. The methodology does not yield reliable results; therefore interpretation strategies have been developed in an attempt to overcome the non-reproducibility of LCN typing. It is troubling that the LCN protocols that are available are scant and leave most of the interpretation to the discretion of the analyst. There is substantial evidence that the interpretation by practitioners often is not based on the results of validation studies and is steeped in practices of bias. In addition, no generally accepted approach(es) to statistical analyses and the values to account for the uncertainty associated with the stochastic phenomena, such as allele drop out, are described.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)551-552
Number of pages2
JournalForensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2009


  • Allele drop out
  • Low copy number typing
  • Reliability
  • Statistics
  • Stochastic effects
  • Stutter


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