Long-Lived Bright Red Emitting Azaoxa-Triangulenium Fluorophores

Badri P. Maliwal, Rafal Fudala, Sangram Raut, Rutika Kokate, Thomas J. Sørensen, Bo W. Laursen, Zygmunt Gryczynski, Ignacy Gryczynski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

34 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The fluorescence lifetimes of most red emitting organic probes are under 4 nanoseconds, which is a limiting factor in studying interactions and conformational dynamics of macromolecules. In addition, the nanosecond background autofluorescence is a significant interference during fluorescence measurements in cellular environment. Therefore, red fluorophores with longer lifetimes will be immensely helpful. Azaoxa-triangulenium fluorophores ADOTA and DAOTA are red emitting small organic molecules with high quantum yield, long fluorescence lifetime and high limiting anisotropy. In aqueous environment, ADOTA and DAOTA absorption and emission maxima are respectively 540 nm and 556 nm, and 556 nm and 589 nm. Their emission extends beyond 700 nm. Both probes have the limiting anisotropy between 0.36-0.38 at their absorption peak. In both protic and aprotic solvents, their lifetimes are around 20 ns, making them among the longest-lived red emitting organic fluorophores. Upon labeling of avidin, streptavidin and immunoglobulin their absorption and fluorescence are red-shifted. Unlike in free form, the protein-conjugated probes have heterogeneous fluorescence decays, with the presence of both significantly quenched and unquenched populations. Despite the presence of significant local motions due to a flexible trimethylene linker, we successfully measured both intermediate nanosecond intra-protein motions and slower rotational correlation times approaching 100 ns. Their long lifetimes are unaffected by the cell membrane (hexadecyl-ADOTA) and the intra-cellular (DAOTA-Arginine) localization. Their long lifetimes also enabled successful time-gating of the cellular autofluorescence resulting in background-free fluorescence lifetime based images. ADOTA and DAOTA retain a long fluorescence lifetime when free, as protein conjugate, in membranes and inside the cell. Our successful measurements of intermediate nanosecond internal motions and long correlations times of large proteins suggest that these probes will be highly useful to study slower intra-molecular motions and interactions among macromolecules. The fluorescence lifetime facilitated gating of cellular nanosecond autofluorescence should be of considerable help in in vitro and in vivo applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere63043
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume8
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - 7 May 2013

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Fluorophores
fluorescent dyes
Fluorescence
fluorescence
Anisotropy
Macromolecules
Proteins
conjugated proteins
Cell Membrane
streptavidin
avidin
Streptavidin
Avidin
proteins
Quantum yield
Cell membranes
Labeling
immunoglobulins
arginine
cell membranes

Cite this

Maliwal, B. P., Fudala, R., Raut, S., Kokate, R., Sørensen, T. J., Laursen, B. W., ... Gryczynski, I. (2013). Long-Lived Bright Red Emitting Azaoxa-Triangulenium Fluorophores. PLoS ONE, 8(5), [e63043]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063043
Maliwal, Badri P. ; Fudala, Rafal ; Raut, Sangram ; Kokate, Rutika ; Sørensen, Thomas J. ; Laursen, Bo W. ; Gryczynski, Zygmunt ; Gryczynski, Ignacy. / Long-Lived Bright Red Emitting Azaoxa-Triangulenium Fluorophores. In: PLoS ONE. 2013 ; Vol. 8, No. 5.
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Long-Lived Bright Red Emitting Azaoxa-Triangulenium Fluorophores. / Maliwal, Badri P.; Fudala, Rafal; Raut, Sangram; Kokate, Rutika; Sørensen, Thomas J.; Laursen, Bo W.; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Gryczynski, Ignacy.

In: PLoS ONE, Vol. 8, No. 5, e63043, 07.05.2013.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Fudala, Rafal

AU - Raut, Sangram

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AU - Sørensen, Thomas J.

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Maliwal BP, Fudala R, Raut S, Kokate R, Sørensen TJ, Laursen BW et al. Long-Lived Bright Red Emitting Azaoxa-Triangulenium Fluorophores. PLoS ONE. 2013 May 7;8(5). e63043. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063043