Judgments about illegal performance-enhancing substances: Reasoned, reactive, or both?

Tonya Dodge, Michelle Stock, Dana Litt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Scopus citations


This study applied aspects of the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Prototype/Willingness model to understand cognitions associated with the use of illegal performance-enhancing substances. There were two study objectives. One was to investigate whether the illegal-is-effective heuristic (i.e. belief that illegal performance-enhancing substances are more effective than legal performance-enhancing substances) affects willingness to use illegal performance-enhancing substances. The second was to examine whether attitudes, norms, and prototypes influence the willingness and intentions to use illegal performance-enhancing substances. The illegal-is-effective heuristic was a significant predictor of willingness but was not a significant predictor of intentions. Implications for future research and prevention efforts are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)962-971
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Health Psychology
Issue number7
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2013



  • dual-processing
  • intentions
  • performance-enhancing substances
  • prototypes
  • willingness

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