We have investigated the effect of tumor promoting phorbol esters on the antiproliferative actions of several antitumor agents. Pretreatment of HeLa cells with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) or phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) caused a significant (9-fold) increase in cellular sensitivity to cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (CP). TPA also sensitized HeLa cells to melphalan (2.5-fold) but had no effect on the antiproliferative activity of bleomycin, doxorubicin, vincristine, or mitomycin C. The sensitization of HeLa cells by TPA was concentration-dependent up to 1 nM and paralleled the activation of protein kinase C by TPA measured in vitro. The maximum stimulation of protein kinase C (6-fold) was observed with 10 nM TPA. 4α-Phorbol 12,13-didecanoate neither activated protein kinase C nor sensitized HeLa cells to CP. 4-O-Methyl-TPA, which does not affect cell cycle distribution of HeLa cells, also sensitized these cells to CP by 6-fold and activated protein kinase C by 3-fold. Inhibitors of protein kinase C, such as palmitylcarnitine and sphingosine, antagonized PDBu-induced sensitization of HeLa cells to CP. The maximum sensitization of HeLa cells to CP required prolonged pretreatment (≥ 24h) with phorbol esters but could not be explained by down-regulation of protein kinase C. For example, 4-O-methyl-TPA caused no down-regulation of protein kinase C. Moreover, TPA caused substantial down-regualation of protein kinase C (1% of control) in A-253 cells but failed to sensitize A-253 cells to CP. TPA (100 nM), however, activated protein kinase C in A-253 cells by 5.5-fold. Therefore, activation of protein kinase C by TPA appears to be necessary but not sufficient for cellular sensitization to CP. The sensitization of HeLa cells by TPA was associated with a concentration- and time-dependent increase in cellular platinum content. The protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (10 μg/ml) blocked sensitization of HeLa cells to CP as well as the increase in platinum content caused by a 24-h pretreatment with PDBu.
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Journal of Biological Chemistry|
|State||Published - 12 Jun 1990|