Initial validation of an instrument for measuring entrepreneurial and intrapreneurial intentions in student pharmacists

Nazneen Fatima Shaikh, Mona Nili, Nilanjana Dwibedi, S. Suresh Madhavan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Objective. To develop a questionnaire for measuring entrepreneurial and intrapreneurial intentions among student pharmacists and to identify characteristics and personality traits that are associated with these intentions. Methods. A 105-item survey instrument was developed and administered to all Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students (incoming to third year) at a large public university. It consisted of nine scales pertaining to entrepreneurism including previously validated and some newly developed scales adapted for use among student pharmacists. Data analysis consisted of factor analysis to determine scale constructs, reliability assessment, and systematic item-reduction analysis. Multiple linear regression and structural equation modeling was used to determine and confirm the association of personality traits and demographic characteristics with entrepreneurial and intrapreneurial intentions. Results. Of 289 students surveyed, 286 useable survey instruments were included in the analysis. Factor analysis was conducted for each scale, and items that did not load on their theorized factor or had cross-loadings above the permissible limits were removed, reducing the survey to 69 items. Findings demonstrated that gender, joint degree program, and autonomy were significant predictors of entrepreneurial intentions, and achievement motivation, leadership self-efficacy, and problem-solving were significant predictors of intrapreneurial intentions. Conclusion. A multi-dimensional questionnaire to measure entrepreneurial and intrapreneurial intentions of student pharmacists was developed and a few key predictors of such intentions were identified. When fully validated, the questionnaire may be used in pharmacy schools for several purposes, including in the PharmD admission process to gain additional insights into a student’s potential to become a future innovative entrepreneurial or intrapreneurial practitioner.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7624
Pages (from-to)928-937
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican journal of pharmaceutical education
Issue number7
StatePublished - 2020


  • Entrepreneurship
  • Intrapreneurship
  • Personality traits
  • Pharmacist
  • Questionnaire


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