In vitro and in vivo evaluation of N-{2-[4-(3-cyanopyridin-2-yl)piperazin-1-yl]ethyl}-3-[11C]methoxybenzamide, a positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand for dopamine D4 receptors, in rodents

Marcello Leopoldo, Svetlana V. Selivanova, Adrienne Müller, Enza Lacivita, John A. Schetz, Simon M. Ametamey

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The D4 dopamine receptor belongs to the D2-like family of dopamine receptors, and its exact regional distribution in the central nervous system is still a matter of considerable debate. The availability of a selective radioligand for the D4 receptor with suitable properties for positron emission tomography (PET) would help resolve issues of D4 receptor localization in the brain, and the presumed diurnal change of expressed protein in the eye and pineal gland. We report here on in vitro and in vivo characteristics of the high-affinity D4 receptor-selective ligand N-{2-[4-(3-cyanopyridin-2-yl)piperazin-1-yl]ethyl}-3-[11C]methoxybenzamide ([11C]2) in rat. The results provide new insights on the in vitro properties that a brain PET dopamine D4 radioligand should possess in order to have improved in vivo utility in rodents.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1298-1308
Number of pages11
JournalChemistry and Biodiversity
Issue number9
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2014


  • Dopamine D receptors
  • G-Protein-coupled receptors (GPCR)
  • Piperazine, 1-aryl-
  • Positron emission tomography (PET)
  • Rodent


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