Improving diagnostic capabilities of medical students via application of cognitive sciences-derived learning principles

Frank J. Papa, Michael Oglesby, David G. Aldrich, Frederick Schaller, Daisha J. Cipher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: There is limited experimental evidence concerning how best to train students to perform differential diagnosis. We compared 2 different methods for training 2nd-year medical students to perform differential diagnosis (DDX) of heart failure: a traditional classroom-based lecture (control group) versus a cognitive sciences-based approach to DDX instruction implemented through a computer-based tutor (treatment group). Methods: Following random assignment to either group, students were trained for 75 minutes, and then given a 40-item examination comprised of cases that varied along a typicality gradient from prototypical (easy) to less typical (hard). Results: The treatment group diagnosed correctly significantly more test cases than the control group (74% versus 60%, respectively). The treatment group also diagnosed correctly significantly more cases at the extremes of the typicality gradient: 81% versus 65%, respectively, for the prototypical cases; 65% versus 48%, respectively, for the most difficult cases. Conclusion: The ability to perform differential diagnosis is enhanced by training based upon principles of cognitive sciences.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)419-425
Number of pages7
JournalMedical Education
Volume41
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2007

Fingerprint

medical student
diagnostic
science
learning
Group
tutor
student
instruction
classroom
examination
ability
evidence

Keywords

  • *Cognition
  • *Diagnosis, differential
  • *Education, medical
  • Clinical competence/*standards
  • Heart failure, congestive/ *diagnosis
  • Teaching/methods

Cite this

@article{c76b1c11081f4a048e744f0254ee3029,
title = "Improving diagnostic capabilities of medical students via application of cognitive sciences-derived learning principles",
abstract = "Purpose: There is limited experimental evidence concerning how best to train students to perform differential diagnosis. We compared 2 different methods for training 2nd-year medical students to perform differential diagnosis (DDX) of heart failure: a traditional classroom-based lecture (control group) versus a cognitive sciences-based approach to DDX instruction implemented through a computer-based tutor (treatment group). Methods: Following random assignment to either group, students were trained for 75 minutes, and then given a 40-item examination comprised of cases that varied along a typicality gradient from prototypical (easy) to less typical (hard). Results: The treatment group diagnosed correctly significantly more test cases than the control group (74{\%} versus 60{\%}, respectively). The treatment group also diagnosed correctly significantly more cases at the extremes of the typicality gradient: 81{\%} versus 65{\%}, respectively, for the prototypical cases; 65{\%} versus 48{\%}, respectively, for the most difficult cases. Conclusion: The ability to perform differential diagnosis is enhanced by training based upon principles of cognitive sciences.",
keywords = "*Cognition, *Diagnosis, differential, *Education, medical, Clinical competence/*standards, Heart failure, congestive/ *diagnosis, Teaching/methods",
author = "Papa, {Frank J.} and Michael Oglesby and Aldrich, {David G.} and Frederick Schaller and Cipher, {Daisha J.}",
year = "2007",
month = "4",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1111/j.1365-2929.2006.02693.x",
language = "English",
volume = "41",
pages = "419--425",
journal = "Medical Education",
issn = "0308-0110",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd",
number = "4",

}

Improving diagnostic capabilities of medical students via application of cognitive sciences-derived learning principles. / Papa, Frank J.; Oglesby, Michael; Aldrich, David G.; Schaller, Frederick; Cipher, Daisha J.

In: Medical Education, Vol. 41, No. 4, 01.04.2007, p. 419-425.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Improving diagnostic capabilities of medical students via application of cognitive sciences-derived learning principles

AU - Papa, Frank J.

AU - Oglesby, Michael

AU - Aldrich, David G.

AU - Schaller, Frederick

AU - Cipher, Daisha J.

PY - 2007/4/1

Y1 - 2007/4/1

N2 - Purpose: There is limited experimental evidence concerning how best to train students to perform differential diagnosis. We compared 2 different methods for training 2nd-year medical students to perform differential diagnosis (DDX) of heart failure: a traditional classroom-based lecture (control group) versus a cognitive sciences-based approach to DDX instruction implemented through a computer-based tutor (treatment group). Methods: Following random assignment to either group, students were trained for 75 minutes, and then given a 40-item examination comprised of cases that varied along a typicality gradient from prototypical (easy) to less typical (hard). Results: The treatment group diagnosed correctly significantly more test cases than the control group (74% versus 60%, respectively). The treatment group also diagnosed correctly significantly more cases at the extremes of the typicality gradient: 81% versus 65%, respectively, for the prototypical cases; 65% versus 48%, respectively, for the most difficult cases. Conclusion: The ability to perform differential diagnosis is enhanced by training based upon principles of cognitive sciences.

AB - Purpose: There is limited experimental evidence concerning how best to train students to perform differential diagnosis. We compared 2 different methods for training 2nd-year medical students to perform differential diagnosis (DDX) of heart failure: a traditional classroom-based lecture (control group) versus a cognitive sciences-based approach to DDX instruction implemented through a computer-based tutor (treatment group). Methods: Following random assignment to either group, students were trained for 75 minutes, and then given a 40-item examination comprised of cases that varied along a typicality gradient from prototypical (easy) to less typical (hard). Results: The treatment group diagnosed correctly significantly more test cases than the control group (74% versus 60%, respectively). The treatment group also diagnosed correctly significantly more cases at the extremes of the typicality gradient: 81% versus 65%, respectively, for the prototypical cases; 65% versus 48%, respectively, for the most difficult cases. Conclusion: The ability to perform differential diagnosis is enhanced by training based upon principles of cognitive sciences.

KW - Cognition

KW - Diagnosis, differential

KW - Education, medical

KW - Clinical competence/standards

KW - Heart failure, congestive/ diagnosis

KW - Teaching/methods

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=34147120697&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/j.1365-2929.2006.02693.x

DO - 10.1111/j.1365-2929.2006.02693.x

M3 - Article

VL - 41

SP - 419

EP - 425

JO - Medical Education

JF - Medical Education

SN - 0308-0110

IS - 4

ER -