Impact of student pharmacists on community influenza vaccination rates

Gretchen K. Garofoli, Krista D. Capehart, Olivia Kinney, Xue Feng, Usha Sambamoorthi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Pharmacists are able to provide vaccinations in all 50 states and student pharmacists are able to provide vaccinations in most states. Community pharmacists and student pharmacists are in a position to impact many patients due to their accessibility. Objectives: To assess the impact on the number of influenza vaccines administered in community pharmacies after student pharmacists were granted the authority to vaccinate and to identify geographical disparities in student placements. Methods: This is a prepost study that compared the number of influenza vaccinations given in community pharmacies in West Virginia before and after student pharmacists were given the authority to vaccinate. Vaccination data were obtained for two 6-month periods over two consecutive influenza seasons. Community pharmacy advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPE) placement data was obtained from all three schools of pharmacy in the state. Geographical Information Systems software was used to produce maps by zip code. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. Results: APPE students were placed in community pharmacies in 43 different zip codes throughout the state from August 2015 to January 2016. Although the total number of vaccinations given across the state increased during the post period, there was no statistically significant difference in the average number of vaccinations given in the zip codes where student pharmacists were placed. Analysis of mapping output revealed many geographical gaps in student placement with most placements occurring near schools of pharmacy in the state. Conclusions: An increase in the number of vaccinations was not observed across the state after student pharmacists were able to provide vaccinations. Disparities in the placement of APPE students throughout West Virginia were identified through this research. There are numerous areas that lack APPE student placement, which provide an opportunity for strategic placement of students in the future to meet the unmet needs of these communities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)494-501
Number of pages8
JournalJACCP Journal of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1 Oct 2019


  • influenza vaccines
  • pharmaceutical services
  • pharmacies
  • pharmacists
  • students, pharmacy
  • vaccination


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