Impact of an electronic medium delivery of warfarin education in a low income, minority outpatient population: A pilot intervention study

Krista Heinrich, Katherine Sanchez, Cecilia Hui, Kiara Talabi, Marlena Perry, Huanying Qin, Hoa Nguyen, Amulya Tatachar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background: Warfarin is classified as a high-alert medication for ambulatory healthcare and safe guards for high-alert medications are necessary, including the practice of mandatory patient education. The high cost of hospitalizations related to adverse events combined with the average bleeding event rate of 7-8% in spite of routine patient education, suggests the importance of new approaches to standardized health education on warfarin. We sought to evaluate the impact of a warfarin educational video using an electronic tablet on patient knowledge and to determine patients' satisfaction with the use of an electronic tablet for educational purposes in outpatient clinics serving a low income, minority population. Methods: A warfarin educational video delivered on an electronic tablet (iPad) was delivered at two pharmacist-managed anticoagulation clinics to uninsured patients whose annual income is equal or less than two hundred percent below the poverty level were offered. Patients (n = 18) completed a pre-video and post-video knowledge test on warfarin before and after viewing the warfarin educational video on an electronic tablet and a follow-up test to measure the retention of knowledge and a patient satisfaction survey at 60 days. The primary outcome was change in knowledge test scores. Other outcome measures included adherence rates, adverse events, time in therapeutic INR range, and patient-reported satisfaction scores. Results: The majority of patients were uninsured men taking warfarin for atrial fibrillation (n = 5). The median scores at post-video knowledge test and follow-up knowledge test were significantly higher than that for the pre-knowledge test (12 (11-12) vs. 10(8-11), p < 0.001). The study group had a 'time in therapeutic INR' range of 56.3%, a rate of adverse events of 24.5%, and a self-reported adherence rate to warfarin of 94.1%. The majority of patients also had positive responses to the patient satisfaction survey. Conclusions: Patient education delivered via iPad to facilitate knowledge of medication can serve as a useful tool for educating patients about warfarin and warfarin therapy. Use of an electronic medium may be a unique way to provide standard medication education to patients. Trial registration: The study was retrospectively registered with: NCT03650777; 9/18/18.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1050
JournalBMC Public Health
Issue number1
StatePublished - 5 Aug 2019


  • Education
  • Health literacy
  • Primary care
  • Technology
  • Warfarin


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