HVI and HVII mitochondrial DNA data in Apaches and Navajos

Bruce Budowle, Marc W. Allard, Constance L. Fisher, Alice R. Isenberg, Keith L. Monson, John E.B. Stewart, Mark R. Wilson, Kevin W.P. Miller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


Most mtDNA studies on Native Americans have concentrated on hypervariable region I (HVI) sequence data. Mitochondrial DNA haplotype data from hypervariable regions I and II (HVI and HVII) have been compiled from Apaches (N=180) and Navajos (N=146). The inclusion of HVII data increases the amount of information that can be obtained from low diversity population groups. Less mtDNA variation was observed in the Apaches and Navajos than in major population groups. The majority of the mtDNA sequences were observed more than once; only 17.8% (32/180) of the Apache sequences and 25.8% of the Navajo sequences were observed once. Most of the haplotypes in Apaches and Navajos fall into the A and B haplogroups. Although a limited number of haplogroups were observed, both sample populations exhibit sufficient variation for forensic mtDNA typing. Genetic diversity was 0.930 in the Apache sample and 0.963 in the Navajo sample. The random match probability was 7.48% in the Apache sample and 4.40% in the Navajo sample. The average number of nucleotide differences between individuals in a database is 9.0 in the Navajo sample and 7.7 in the Apache sample. The data demonstrate that mtDNA sequencing can be informative in forensic cases where Native American population data are used.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)212-215
Number of pages4
JournalInternational journal of legal medicine
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2002


  • Apache
  • Genetic diversity
  • HVI
  • HVII
  • Haplotype
  • Mitochondrial DNA
  • Native Americans
  • Navajo
  • Random match probability
  • Substitution
  • Transition
  • Transversion


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