Nef is a viral regulatory protein of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that has been shown to contribute to disease progression. Among its putative effects on T cell functions are the down-regulation of CD4 and major histocompatibility class I surface molecules. These effects occur in part via Nef interactions with intracellular signaling molecules. We sought to better characterize the effects of HIV Nef on T cell function by examining chemotaxis in response to stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) as well as CXCR4 signaling molecules. Here, we report the novel observation that HIV Nef inhibited chemotaxis in response to SDF-1α in both Jurkat T cells and primary peripheral CD4+ T lymphocytes. Our data indicate that HIV Nef altered critical downstream molecules in the CXCR4 pathway, including focal adhesion kinases. These findings suggest that HIV Nef may blunt the T cell response to chemokines. Because T lymphocyte migration is an integral component of host defense, HIV Nef may thereby contribute to the pathogenesis of AIDS.