Astrocytes are susceptible to HIV-1 infection. We have recently demonstrated that human mannose receptor (hMR) is directly involved in CD4-independent HIV-1 infection of astrocytes. The apparent paradox between the vivid binding affinity of HIV-1 gp120 protein to hMR and the low efficiency of hMR-mediated HIV-1 infection raises the possibility that HIV-1 binding to hMR alone may negatively affect astrocyte function. In this study, we examined the relationship between HIV-1 interaction with hMR and the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in astrocytes. We took advantage of an astroglial cell line U87.MR stably expressing hMR as an in vitro astrocyte model system and human primary astrocytes, and demonstrated that HIV-1 binding to astrocytes induced the production of MMP-2. This induction appeared to be most potent with M-tropic HIV-1 viruses. Increased MMP-2 production was not due to hMR-mediated HIV-1 entry and/or HIV-1 viral gene expression, as the transfection of HIV-1 proviral DNA did not result in MMP-2 production, and the infection of AT-2-treated HIV-1 viruses did not inhibit MMP-2 production. Direct involvement of hMR in HIV-induced MMP-2 production was confirmed by the inhibition of the yeast mannan, an hMR ligand antagonist, and an anti-hMR serum. Furthermore, HIV-induced MMP-2 production in astrocytes was shown to involve hMR-mediated intracellular signaling. Taken together, these results suggest that HIV-1 binding to astrocytes in the absence of HIV-1 viral entry is sufficient to alter astrocyte function through hMR-mediated intracellular signaling. In addition, these results provide new evidence to support the notion that hMR is capable of eliciting intracellular signaling upon ligand binding.
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease|
|Publication status||Published - 30 Jun 2005|
- Human mannose receptor
- Intracellular signaling
- Matrix metalloproteinase 2 production