High alcohol concentration products associated with poverty and state alcohol policies

Matthew E. Rossheim, Dennis L. Thombs, Alexander C. Wagenaar, Ziming Xuan, Subhash Aryal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Objectives. We examined the associations among zip code demographics, the state alcohol policy environment, and the retail outlet availability of multiple fruit-flavored alcoholic drinks in a can (MFAC). Methods. In a nationally representative sample of zip codes (n = 872), we merged data from 4 sources: publicly available marketing information from 2 major MFAC producers, the US Census Bureau, state alcohol regulatory agencies, and recent research on state alcohol policies. We used zero-inflated negative binomial regression models to examine MFAC outlet availability in the United States. Results. More than 98% of MFAC outlets were off-premises alcohol establishments. After we controlled for population size and the number of licensed onand off-premises alcohol outlets within zip codes, more families below the poverty line and weaker state alcohol control policies were associated with greater MFAC outlet availability. Conclusions. Economic conditions and alcohol policy environment appeared to be related to MFAC outlet availability, after adjusting for the general availability of alcohol. Research is needed to determine whether MFACs are disproportionately contributing to alcohol-related harm in socially and economically disadvantaged communities. Policies to better regulate the off-premises sale of alcohol are needed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1886-1892
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican journal of public health
Issue number9
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2015


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