Hemodynamic responses and linear and non-linear dynamics of cardiovascular autonomic regulation following supramaximal exercise

Styliani Goulopoulou, Bo Fernhall, Jill A. Kanaley

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The purpose of this study was to examine hemodynamic responses and cardiovascular autonomic regulation following supramaximal exercise. Electrocardiographic R-R intervals and beat-to-beat hemodynamics were recorded before and for 10 min after a 30-s Wingate test in 11 males. Spectral analysis of heart rate (HR) and arterial pressure variability, analysis of HR complexity, the sequence technique and the cross-spectral transfer function were used to quantify autonomic regulation and baroreflex sensitivity. After exercise, the high frequency component of HR variability (vagal-related index) was lower than pre-exercise values, whereas the ratio low frequency to high frequency (index of sympathovagal balance) and the low frequency component of blood pressure variability (index of sympathetic vasomotor tone) were greater than baseline (p < 0.05). Post-exercise HR complexity and baroreflex sensitivity were reduced compared to baseline, p < 0.05. Cardiovascular autonomic control requires more than 10 min to fully recover after intense physical exertion of only 30-s in young healthy males.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)525-531
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Journal of Applied Physiology
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2009



  • Blood pressure variability
  • Exercise recovery
  • Heart rate complexity
  • Heart rate variability
  • Wingate test

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