We describe a glucose sensor based on a mutant glucose/galactose binding protein (GGBP) and phase-modulation fluorometry. The GGBP from Escherichia coli was mutated to contain a single cysteine residue at position 26. When labeled with a sulfhydryl-reactive probe 2-(4'- iodoacetamidoanilino)naphthalene-6-sulfonic acid, the labeled protein displayed a twofold decrease in intensity in response to glucose, with a dissociation constant near 1 μM glucose. The ANS-labeled protein displayed only a modest change in lifetime, precluding lifetime-based sensing of glucose. A modulation sensor was created by combining ANS26-GGBP with a long- lifetime ruthenium (Ru) metal-ligand complex on the surface of the cuvette. Binding of glucose changed the relative intensity of ANS26-GGBP and the Ru complex, resulting in a dramatic change in modulation at a low frequency of 2.1 MHz. Modulation measurements at 2.1 MHz were shown to accurately determine the glucose concentration. These results suggest an approach to glucose sensing with simple devices.