Cardiac arrest (CA) and cardiocerebral resuscitation (CCR)-induced ischemia–reperfusion imposes oxidative and carbonyl stress that injures the brain. The ischemic shift to anaerobic glycolysis, combined with oxyradical inactivation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), provokes excessive formation of the powerful glycating agent, methylglyoxal. The glyoxalase (GLO) system, comprising the enzymes glyoxalase 1 (GLO1) and GLO2, utilizes reduced glutathione (GSH) supplied by glutathione reductase (GR) to detoxify methylglyoxal resulting in reduced protein glycation. Pyruvate, a natural antioxidant that augments GSH redox status, could sustain the GLO system in the face of ischemia–reperfusion. This study assessed the impact of CA-CCR on the cerebral GLO system and pyruvate’s ability to preserve this neuroprotective system following CA. Domestic swine were subjected to 10 min CA, 4 min closed-chest CCR, defibrillation and 4 h recovery, or to a non-CA sham protocol. Sodium pyruvate or NaCl control was infused (0.1 mmol/kg/min, intravenous) throughout CCR and the first 60 min recovery. Protein glycation, GLO1 content, and activities of GLO1, GR, and GAPDH were analyzed in frontal cortex biopsied at 4 h recovery. CA-CCR produced marked protein glycation which was attenuated by pyruvate treatment. GLO1, GR, and GAPDH activities fell by 86, 55, and 30%, respectively, after CA-CCR with NaCl infusion. Pyruvate prevented inactivation of all three enzymes. CA-CCR sharply lowered GLO1 monomer content with commensurate formation of higher molecular weight immunoreactivity; pyruvate preserved GLO1 monomers. Thus, ischemia–reperfusion imposed by CA-CCR disabled the brain’s antiglycation defenses. Pyruvate preserved these enzyme systems that protect the brain from glycation stress. Impact statement: Recent studies have demonstrated a pivotal role of protein glycation in brain injury. Methylglyoxal, a by-product of glycolysis and a powerful glycating agent in brain, is detoxified by the glutathione-catalyzed glyoxalase (GLO) system, but the impact of cardiac arrest (CA) and cardiocerebral resuscitation (CCR) on the brain’s antiglycation defenses is unknown. This study in a swine model of CA and CCR demonstrated for the first time that the intense cerebral ischemia–reperfusion imposed by CA-resuscitation disabled glyoxalase-1 and glutathione reductase (GR), the source of glutathione for methylglyoxal detoxification. Moreover, intravenous administration of pyruvate, a redox-active intermediary metabolite and antioxidant in brain, prevented inactivation of glyoxalase-1 and GR and blunted protein glycation in cerebral cortex. These findings in a large mammal are first evidence of GLO inactivation and the resultant cerebral protein glycation after CA-resuscitation, and identify novel actions of pyruvate to minimize protein glycation in postischemic brain.
- nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2