Factors contributing to 50-ft walking speed and observed ethnic differences in older community-dwelling Mexican Americans and European Americans

Myla U. Quiben, Helen P. Hazuda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background Mexican Americans comprise the most rapidly growing segment of the older US population and are reported to have poorer functional health than European Americans, but few studies have examined factors contributing to ethnic differences in walking speed between Mexican Americans and European Americans. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine factors that contribute to walking speed and observed ethnic differences in walking speed in older Mexican Americans and European Americans using the disablement process model (DPM) as a guide. Design This was an observational, cross-sectional study. Methods Participants were 703 Mexican American and European American older adults (aged 65 years and older) who completed the baseline examination of the San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging (SALSA). Hierarchical regression models were performed to identify the contribution of contextual, lifestyle/anthropometric, disease, and impairment variables to walking speed and to ethnic differences in walking speed. Results The ethic difference in unadjusted mean walking speed (Mexican Americans=1.17 m/s, European Americans=1.29 m/s) was fully explained by adjustment for contextual (ie, age, sex, education, income) and lifestyle/anthropometric (ie, body mass index, height, physical activity) variables; adjusted mean walking speed in both ethnic groups was 1.23 m/s. Contextual variables explained 20.3% of the variance in walking speed, and lifestyle/anthropometric variables explained an additional 8.4%. Diseases (ie, diabetes, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) explained an additional 1.9% of the variance in walking speed; impairments (ie, FEV1, upper leg pain, and lower extremity strength and range of motion) contributed an additional 5.5%. Thus, both nonmodifiable (ie, contextual, height) and modifiable (ie, impairments, body mass index, physical activity) factors contributed to walking speed in older Mexican Americans and European Americans. Limitations The study was conducted in a single geographic area and included only Mexican American Hispanic individuals. Conclusions Walking speed in older Mexican Americans and European Americans is influenced by modifiable and nonmodifiable factors, underscoring the importance of the DPM framework, which incorporates both factors into the physical therapist patient/client management process.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)871-883
Number of pages13
JournalPhysical Therapy
Volume95
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2015

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Independent Living
Life Style
Body Mass Index
Walking Speed
Exercise
Sex Education
Physical Therapists
Articular Range of Motion
Hispanic Americans
Ethnic Groups
Ethics
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Longitudinal Studies
Lower Extremity
Leg
Cross-Sectional Studies
Stroke

Cite this

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title = "Factors contributing to 50-ft walking speed and observed ethnic differences in older community-dwelling Mexican Americans and European Americans",
abstract = "Background Mexican Americans comprise the most rapidly growing segment of the older US population and are reported to have poorer functional health than European Americans, but few studies have examined factors contributing to ethnic differences in walking speed between Mexican Americans and European Americans. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine factors that contribute to walking speed and observed ethnic differences in walking speed in older Mexican Americans and European Americans using the disablement process model (DPM) as a guide. Design This was an observational, cross-sectional study. Methods Participants were 703 Mexican American and European American older adults (aged 65 years and older) who completed the baseline examination of the San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging (SALSA). Hierarchical regression models were performed to identify the contribution of contextual, lifestyle/anthropometric, disease, and impairment variables to walking speed and to ethnic differences in walking speed. Results The ethic difference in unadjusted mean walking speed (Mexican Americans=1.17 m/s, European Americans=1.29 m/s) was fully explained by adjustment for contextual (ie, age, sex, education, income) and lifestyle/anthropometric (ie, body mass index, height, physical activity) variables; adjusted mean walking speed in both ethnic groups was 1.23 m/s. Contextual variables explained 20.3{\%} of the variance in walking speed, and lifestyle/anthropometric variables explained an additional 8.4{\%}. Diseases (ie, diabetes, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) explained an additional 1.9{\%} of the variance in walking speed; impairments (ie, FEV1, upper leg pain, and lower extremity strength and range of motion) contributed an additional 5.5{\%}. Thus, both nonmodifiable (ie, contextual, height) and modifiable (ie, impairments, body mass index, physical activity) factors contributed to walking speed in older Mexican Americans and European Americans. Limitations The study was conducted in a single geographic area and included only Mexican American Hispanic individuals. Conclusions Walking speed in older Mexican Americans and European Americans is influenced by modifiable and nonmodifiable factors, underscoring the importance of the DPM framework, which incorporates both factors into the physical therapist patient/client management process.",
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Factors contributing to 50-ft walking speed and observed ethnic differences in older community-dwelling Mexican Americans and European Americans. / Quiben, Myla U.; Hazuda, Helen P.

In: Physical Therapy, Vol. 95, No. 6, 01.06.2015, p. 871-883.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

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AU - Quiben, Myla U.

AU - Hazuda, Helen P.

PY - 2015/6/1

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N2 - Background Mexican Americans comprise the most rapidly growing segment of the older US population and are reported to have poorer functional health than European Americans, but few studies have examined factors contributing to ethnic differences in walking speed between Mexican Americans and European Americans. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine factors that contribute to walking speed and observed ethnic differences in walking speed in older Mexican Americans and European Americans using the disablement process model (DPM) as a guide. Design This was an observational, cross-sectional study. Methods Participants were 703 Mexican American and European American older adults (aged 65 years and older) who completed the baseline examination of the San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging (SALSA). Hierarchical regression models were performed to identify the contribution of contextual, lifestyle/anthropometric, disease, and impairment variables to walking speed and to ethnic differences in walking speed. Results The ethic difference in unadjusted mean walking speed (Mexican Americans=1.17 m/s, European Americans=1.29 m/s) was fully explained by adjustment for contextual (ie, age, sex, education, income) and lifestyle/anthropometric (ie, body mass index, height, physical activity) variables; adjusted mean walking speed in both ethnic groups was 1.23 m/s. Contextual variables explained 20.3% of the variance in walking speed, and lifestyle/anthropometric variables explained an additional 8.4%. Diseases (ie, diabetes, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) explained an additional 1.9% of the variance in walking speed; impairments (ie, FEV1, upper leg pain, and lower extremity strength and range of motion) contributed an additional 5.5%. Thus, both nonmodifiable (ie, contextual, height) and modifiable (ie, impairments, body mass index, physical activity) factors contributed to walking speed in older Mexican Americans and European Americans. Limitations The study was conducted in a single geographic area and included only Mexican American Hispanic individuals. Conclusions Walking speed in older Mexican Americans and European Americans is influenced by modifiable and nonmodifiable factors, underscoring the importance of the DPM framework, which incorporates both factors into the physical therapist patient/client management process.

AB - Background Mexican Americans comprise the most rapidly growing segment of the older US population and are reported to have poorer functional health than European Americans, but few studies have examined factors contributing to ethnic differences in walking speed between Mexican Americans and European Americans. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine factors that contribute to walking speed and observed ethnic differences in walking speed in older Mexican Americans and European Americans using the disablement process model (DPM) as a guide. Design This was an observational, cross-sectional study. Methods Participants were 703 Mexican American and European American older adults (aged 65 years and older) who completed the baseline examination of the San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging (SALSA). Hierarchical regression models were performed to identify the contribution of contextual, lifestyle/anthropometric, disease, and impairment variables to walking speed and to ethnic differences in walking speed. Results The ethic difference in unadjusted mean walking speed (Mexican Americans=1.17 m/s, European Americans=1.29 m/s) was fully explained by adjustment for contextual (ie, age, sex, education, income) and lifestyle/anthropometric (ie, body mass index, height, physical activity) variables; adjusted mean walking speed in both ethnic groups was 1.23 m/s. Contextual variables explained 20.3% of the variance in walking speed, and lifestyle/anthropometric variables explained an additional 8.4%. Diseases (ie, diabetes, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) explained an additional 1.9% of the variance in walking speed; impairments (ie, FEV1, upper leg pain, and lower extremity strength and range of motion) contributed an additional 5.5%. Thus, both nonmodifiable (ie, contextual, height) and modifiable (ie, impairments, body mass index, physical activity) factors contributed to walking speed in older Mexican Americans and European Americans. Limitations The study was conducted in a single geographic area and included only Mexican American Hispanic individuals. Conclusions Walking speed in older Mexican Americans and European Americans is influenced by modifiable and nonmodifiable factors, underscoring the importance of the DPM framework, which incorporates both factors into the physical therapist patient/client management process.

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