Factors associated with the vaccination of international travelers: A multivariate analysis

John C. Licciardone, Kathryn M. Herron, Muriel A. Marshall, Robert M. Woodworth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Travel medicine practice in the United States has not been extensively studied. This study included 1078 consecutive patients who presented to a university-based travel medicine clinic from 1990 through 1994. Analyses of patient demographics, clinic attendance, itineraries, and vaccinations were conducted. Mean patient age (±SD) was 37.4±16.2 years; 626 (58.1%) of the patients were male. Travel duration was 103.1±242.3 days (median, 21 days), and lead time (defined as the time between clinic presentation and departure for the purpose of this study) was 23.8±26.5 days (median, 16 days). Destination was the strongest independent factor affecting vaccination practices. A lead time of 31 or more days was associated with significantly elevated odds ratios for all immunobiologicals except immune globulin. These findings underscore the need to educate the traveling public, healthcare providers, and the travel industry about the benefits of seeking medical consultation at least 1 month prior to international travel.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)423-431
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the American Osteopathic Association
Issue number7
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2000


  • Travel medicine
  • Vaccination


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