Exposures in early life: Associations with DNA promoter methylation in breast tumors

M. H. Tao, C. Marian, P. G. Shields, N. Potischman, J. Nie, S. S. Krishnan, D. L. Berry, B. V. Kallakury, C. Ambrosone, S. B. Edge, M. Trevisan, J. Winston, J. L. Freudenheim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


There is evidence that epigenetic changes occur early in breast carcinogenesis. We hypothesized that early-life exposures associated with breast cancer would be associated with epigenetic alterations in breast tumors. In particular, we examined DNA methylation patterns in breast tumors in association with several early-life exposures in a population-based case-control study. Promoter methylation of E-cadherin, p16 and RAR-β2 genes was assessed in archived tumor blocks from 803 cases with real-time methylation-specific PCR. Unconditional logistic regression was used for case-case comparisons of those with and without promoter methylation. We found no differences in the prevalence of DNA methylation of the individual genes by age at menarche, age at first live birth and weight at age 20. In case-case comparisons of premenopausal breast cancer, lower birth weight was associated with increased likelihood of E-cadherin promoter methylation (OR = 2.79, 95% CI, 1.15-6.82, for ≤2.5 v. 2.6-2.9 kg); higher adult height with RAR-β2 methylation (OR = 3.34, 95% CI, 1.19-9.39, for ≥1.65 v. <1.60 m); and not having been breastfed with p16 methylation (OR = 2.75, 95% CI, 1.14-6.62). Among postmenopausal breast cancers, birth order was associated with increased likelihood of p16 promoter methylation. Being other than first in the birth order was inversely associated with likelihood of ≥1 of the three genes being methylated for premenopausal breast cancers, but positively associated with methylation in postmenopausal women. These results suggest that there may be alterations in methylation associated with early-life exposures that persist into adulthood and affect breast cancer risk.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)182-190
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2013


  • breast cancer
  • early-life exposure
  • epidemiology
  • epigenetics
  • promoter methylation


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