Exercise is required for visceral fat loss in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes

I. Giannopoulou, L. L. Ploutz-Snyder, R. Carhart, R. S. Weinstock, B. Fernhall, Styliani Goulopoulou, J. A. Kanaley

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Abstract

This study examined the effects of aerobic exercise without weight loss, a hypocaloric high monounsaturated fat diet, and diet plus exercise (D+E) on total abdominal and visceral fat loss in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Thirty-three postmenopausal women (body mass index, 34.6 ± 1.9 kg/m2) were assigned to one of three interventions: a hypocaloric high monounsaturated fat diet alone, exercise alone (EX), and D+E for 14 wk. Aerobic capacity, body composition, abdominal fat distribution (magnetic resonance imaging), glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity were measured preand postintervention. Body weight (∼4.5 kg) and percent body fat (∼5%) were decreased (P < 0.05) with the D and D+E intervention, whereas only percent body fat (∼2.3%) decreased with EX. Total abdominal fat and sc adipose tissue (SAT) were reduced with the D and D+E interventions (P < 0.05), whereas visceral adipose tissue (VAT) decreased with the D+E and EX intervention, but not with the D intervention. EX resulted in a reduction in total abdominal fat, VAT, and SAT (P < 0.05) despite the lack of weight loss. The reductions in total abdominal fat and SAT explained 32.7% and 9.7%, respectively, of the variability in the changes in fasting glucose levels, whereas the reductions in VAT explained 15.9% of the changes in fasting insulin levels (P < 0.05). In conclusion, modest weight loss, through either D or D+E, resulted in similar improvements in total abdominal fat, SAT, and glycemic status in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes; however, the addition of exercise to diet is necessary for VAT loss. These data demonstrate the importance of exercise in the treatment of women with type 2 diabetes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1511-1518
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Volume90
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2005

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Intra-Abdominal Fat
Abdominal Fat
Medical problems
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Adipose Tissue
Fats
Exercise
Tissue
Weight Loss
Nutrition
High Fat Diet
Fasting
Diet
Glucose
Body Composition
Insulin Resistance
Insulin
Body Mass Index
Body Weight
Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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Giannopoulou, I., Ploutz-Snyder, L. L., Carhart, R., Weinstock, R. S., Fernhall, B., Goulopoulou, S., & Kanaley, J. A. (2005). Exercise is required for visceral fat loss in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 90(3), 1511-1518. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2004-1782
Giannopoulou, I. ; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L. ; Carhart, R. ; Weinstock, R. S. ; Fernhall, B. ; Goulopoulou, Styliani ; Kanaley, J. A. / Exercise is required for visceral fat loss in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2005 ; Vol. 90, No. 3. pp. 1511-1518.
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abstract = "This study examined the effects of aerobic exercise without weight loss, a hypocaloric high monounsaturated fat diet, and diet plus exercise (D+E) on total abdominal and visceral fat loss in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Thirty-three postmenopausal women (body mass index, 34.6 ± 1.9 kg/m2) were assigned to one of three interventions: a hypocaloric high monounsaturated fat diet alone, exercise alone (EX), and D+E for 14 wk. Aerobic capacity, body composition, abdominal fat distribution (magnetic resonance imaging), glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity were measured preand postintervention. Body weight (∼4.5 kg) and percent body fat (∼5{\%}) were decreased (P < 0.05) with the D and D+E intervention, whereas only percent body fat (∼2.3{\%}) decreased with EX. Total abdominal fat and sc adipose tissue (SAT) were reduced with the D and D+E interventions (P < 0.05), whereas visceral adipose tissue (VAT) decreased with the D+E and EX intervention, but not with the D intervention. EX resulted in a reduction in total abdominal fat, VAT, and SAT (P < 0.05) despite the lack of weight loss. The reductions in total abdominal fat and SAT explained 32.7{\%} and 9.7{\%}, respectively, of the variability in the changes in fasting glucose levels, whereas the reductions in VAT explained 15.9{\%} of the changes in fasting insulin levels (P < 0.05). In conclusion, modest weight loss, through either D or D+E, resulted in similar improvements in total abdominal fat, SAT, and glycemic status in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes; however, the addition of exercise to diet is necessary for VAT loss. These data demonstrate the importance of exercise in the treatment of women with type 2 diabetes.",
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Giannopoulou, I, Ploutz-Snyder, LL, Carhart, R, Weinstock, RS, Fernhall, B, Goulopoulou, S & Kanaley, JA 2005, 'Exercise is required for visceral fat loss in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes', Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 1511-1518. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2004-1782

Exercise is required for visceral fat loss in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. / Giannopoulou, I.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Carhart, R.; Weinstock, R. S.; Fernhall, B.; Goulopoulou, Styliani; Kanaley, J. A.

In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 90, No. 3, 01.03.2005, p. 1511-1518.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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T1 - Exercise is required for visceral fat loss in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes

AU - Giannopoulou, I.

AU - Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

AU - Carhart, R.

AU - Weinstock, R. S.

AU - Fernhall, B.

AU - Goulopoulou, Styliani

AU - Kanaley, J. A.

PY - 2005/3/1

Y1 - 2005/3/1

N2 - This study examined the effects of aerobic exercise without weight loss, a hypocaloric high monounsaturated fat diet, and diet plus exercise (D+E) on total abdominal and visceral fat loss in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Thirty-three postmenopausal women (body mass index, 34.6 ± 1.9 kg/m2) were assigned to one of three interventions: a hypocaloric high monounsaturated fat diet alone, exercise alone (EX), and D+E for 14 wk. Aerobic capacity, body composition, abdominal fat distribution (magnetic resonance imaging), glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity were measured preand postintervention. Body weight (∼4.5 kg) and percent body fat (∼5%) were decreased (P < 0.05) with the D and D+E intervention, whereas only percent body fat (∼2.3%) decreased with EX. Total abdominal fat and sc adipose tissue (SAT) were reduced with the D and D+E interventions (P < 0.05), whereas visceral adipose tissue (VAT) decreased with the D+E and EX intervention, but not with the D intervention. EX resulted in a reduction in total abdominal fat, VAT, and SAT (P < 0.05) despite the lack of weight loss. The reductions in total abdominal fat and SAT explained 32.7% and 9.7%, respectively, of the variability in the changes in fasting glucose levels, whereas the reductions in VAT explained 15.9% of the changes in fasting insulin levels (P < 0.05). In conclusion, modest weight loss, through either D or D+E, resulted in similar improvements in total abdominal fat, SAT, and glycemic status in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes; however, the addition of exercise to diet is necessary for VAT loss. These data demonstrate the importance of exercise in the treatment of women with type 2 diabetes.

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