Substantial progress in the understanding of the biology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been achieved over the past decades. The early detection and diagnosis of AD and other age-related neurodegenerative diseases, however, remain a challenging scientific frontier. Therefore, the comprehensive discovery (relating to all individual, converging or diverging biochemical disease mechanisms), development, validation, and qualification of standardized biological markers with diagnostic and prognostic functions with a precise performance profile regarding specificity, sensitivity, and positive and negative predictive value are warranted. Methodological innovations in the area of exploratory high-throughput technologies, such as sequencing, microarrays, and mass spectrometry-based analyses of proteins/peptides, have led to the generation of large global molecular datasets from a multiplicity of biological systems, such as biological fluids, cells, tissues, and organs. Such methodological progress has shifted the attention to the execution of hypothesisindependent comprehensive exploratory analyses (opposed to the classical hypothesis-driven candidate approach), with the aim of fully understanding the biological systems in physiology and disease as a whole. The systems biology paradigm integrates experimental biology with accurate and rigorous computational modelling to describe and foresee the dynamic features of biological systems. The use of dynamically evolving technological platforms, including mass spectrometry, in the area of proteomics has enabled to rush the process of biomarker discovery and validation for refining significantly the diagnosis of AD. Currently, proteomics—which is part of the systems biology paradigm—is designated as one of the dominant matured sciences needed for the effective exploratory discovery of prospective biomarker candidates expected to play an effective role in aiding the early detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy development in AD.