Evaluating the Impact of Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences on Student Pharmacist Metacognition

Alex N. Isaacs, Taylor D. Steuber, Meredith L. Howard, Eliza A. Dy-Boarman, Sarah A. Nisly

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective. To assess factors impacting metacognition during the advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) year (final year of the Doctor of Pharmacy program) for student pharmacists at five different institutions. Methods. Student pharmacists completed a pre-and post-APPE year survey that collected data on demographics, curricular and co-curricular experiences, and the 19-item modified metacognition assessment inventory (MAI). Additionally, the post-APPE survey collected data on learning activities completed during the APPE year. Matched survey responses were analyzed to identify associations between change in MAI score and individual experiences. Results. One hundred thirty-nine matched responses were analyzed. A significant improvement in over-all student pharmacist metacognition was seen in matched pre-vs post-APPEs surveys. Several significant, moderate to weak correlations were associated with a change in MAI score over the APPE year. Conclusion. The APPE year resulted in a significant change in student pharmacists’ metacognition at five institutions. This improvement was multifactorial as individual factors had minimal association with the change in metacognition.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8676
Pages (from-to)402-407
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican journal of pharmaceutical education
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2022


  • experiential education
  • metacognition
  • pharmacy education


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