Research Objectives: To develop population-based estimates of estrogen replacement therapy use rates in 1995 among women over age 65 living in the community; to estimate the impact of socioeconomic and health characteristics on estrogen use. Method: Estimates are based on a large, nationally representative sample of Medicare beneficiaries; detailed self-report data were merged with Medicare claims. Results: Overall, 13.1% of women reported use of estrogen replacement therapy in 1995. Estrogen users were more likely to be white, age 65-74, with private insurance, high income, history of osteoporosis and heart problems, no history of breast cancer, and a patient of gynecologists. Conclusions: Estrogen use was substantially lower among the socioeconomically disadvantaged, controlling for medical history variables, suggesting considerable inequity in access to estrogen replacement therapy treatment. Copyright (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Inc.