Elimination of autofluorescence in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy using the AzaDiOxaTriAngulenium (ADOTA) fluorophore in combination with time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC)

Ryan M. Rich, Mark Mummert, Zygmunt Gryczynski, Julian Borejdo, Thomas Just Sorensen, Bow Laursen, Zeno Foldes-Papp, Ignacy Gryczynski, Rafal Fudala

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19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a frequently applied technique that allows for the precise and sensitive analysis of molecular diffusion and interactions. However, the potential of FCS for in vitro or ex vivo studies has not been fully realized due in part to artifacts originating from autofluorescence (fluorescence of inherent components and fixative-induced fluorescence). Here, we propose the azadioxatriangulenium (ADOTA) dye as a solution to this problem. The lifetime of the ADOTA probe, about 19.4 ns, is much longer than most components of autofluorescence. Thus, it can be easily separated by time-correlated single-photon counting methods. Here, we demonstrate the suppression of autofluorescence in FCS using ADOTAlabeled hyaluronan macromolecules (HAs) with Rhodamine 123 added to simulate diffusing fluorescent background components. The emission spectrum and decay rate of Rhodamine 123 overlap with the usual sources of autofluorescence, and its diffusion behavior is well known. We show that the contributions from Rhodamine 123 can be eliminated by time gating or by fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy (FLCS). While the pairing of ADOTA and time gating is an effective strategy for the removal of autofluorescence from fluorescence imaging, the loss of photons leads to erroneous concentration values with FCS. On the other hand, FLCS eliminates autofluorescence without such errors. We then show that both time gating and FLCS may be used successfully with ADOTA-labeled HA to detect the presence of hyaluronidase, the overexpression of which has been observed in many types of cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4887-4894
Number of pages8
JournalAnalytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Volume405
Issue number14
DOIs
StatePublished - 8 Apr 2013

Fingerprint

Fluorophores
Fluorescence Spectrometry
Photons
Rhodamine 123
Fluorescence
Spectroscopy
Spectrum Analysis
Optical Imaging
Hyaluronic Acid
Fixatives
Hyaluronoglucosaminidase
Macromolecules
Artifacts
Coloring Agents
Neoplasms
Imaging techniques

Keywords

  • Fluorescence
  • Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy
  • Hyaluronan
  • Time-correlated single-photon counting

Cite this

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title = "Elimination of autofluorescence in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy using the AzaDiOxaTriAngulenium (ADOTA) fluorophore in combination with time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC)",
abstract = "Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a frequently applied technique that allows for the precise and sensitive analysis of molecular diffusion and interactions. However, the potential of FCS for in vitro or ex vivo studies has not been fully realized due in part to artifacts originating from autofluorescence (fluorescence of inherent components and fixative-induced fluorescence). Here, we propose the azadioxatriangulenium (ADOTA) dye as a solution to this problem. The lifetime of the ADOTA probe, about 19.4 ns, is much longer than most components of autofluorescence. Thus, it can be easily separated by time-correlated single-photon counting methods. Here, we demonstrate the suppression of autofluorescence in FCS using ADOTAlabeled hyaluronan macromolecules (HAs) with Rhodamine 123 added to simulate diffusing fluorescent background components. The emission spectrum and decay rate of Rhodamine 123 overlap with the usual sources of autofluorescence, and its diffusion behavior is well known. We show that the contributions from Rhodamine 123 can be eliminated by time gating or by fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy (FLCS). While the pairing of ADOTA and time gating is an effective strategy for the removal of autofluorescence from fluorescence imaging, the loss of photons leads to erroneous concentration values with FCS. On the other hand, FLCS eliminates autofluorescence without such errors. We then show that both time gating and FLCS may be used successfully with ADOTA-labeled HA to detect the presence of hyaluronidase, the overexpression of which has been observed in many types of cancer.",
keywords = "Fluorescence, Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, Hyaluronan, Time-correlated single-photon counting",
author = "Rich, {Ryan M.} and Mark Mummert and Zygmunt Gryczynski and Julian Borejdo and Sorensen, {Thomas Just} and Bow Laursen and Zeno Foldes-Papp and Ignacy Gryczynski and Rafal Fudala",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Elimination of autofluorescence in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy using the AzaDiOxaTriAngulenium (ADOTA) fluorophore in combination with time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC)

AU - Rich, Ryan M.

AU - Mummert, Mark

AU - Gryczynski, Zygmunt

AU - Borejdo, Julian

AU - Sorensen, Thomas Just

AU - Laursen, Bow

AU - Foldes-Papp, Zeno

AU - Gryczynski, Ignacy

AU - Fudala, Rafal

PY - 2013/4/8

Y1 - 2013/4/8

N2 - Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a frequently applied technique that allows for the precise and sensitive analysis of molecular diffusion and interactions. However, the potential of FCS for in vitro or ex vivo studies has not been fully realized due in part to artifacts originating from autofluorescence (fluorescence of inherent components and fixative-induced fluorescence). Here, we propose the azadioxatriangulenium (ADOTA) dye as a solution to this problem. The lifetime of the ADOTA probe, about 19.4 ns, is much longer than most components of autofluorescence. Thus, it can be easily separated by time-correlated single-photon counting methods. Here, we demonstrate the suppression of autofluorescence in FCS using ADOTAlabeled hyaluronan macromolecules (HAs) with Rhodamine 123 added to simulate diffusing fluorescent background components. The emission spectrum and decay rate of Rhodamine 123 overlap with the usual sources of autofluorescence, and its diffusion behavior is well known. We show that the contributions from Rhodamine 123 can be eliminated by time gating or by fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy (FLCS). While the pairing of ADOTA and time gating is an effective strategy for the removal of autofluorescence from fluorescence imaging, the loss of photons leads to erroneous concentration values with FCS. On the other hand, FLCS eliminates autofluorescence without such errors. We then show that both time gating and FLCS may be used successfully with ADOTA-labeled HA to detect the presence of hyaluronidase, the overexpression of which has been observed in many types of cancer.

AB - Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a frequently applied technique that allows for the precise and sensitive analysis of molecular diffusion and interactions. However, the potential of FCS for in vitro or ex vivo studies has not been fully realized due in part to artifacts originating from autofluorescence (fluorescence of inherent components and fixative-induced fluorescence). Here, we propose the azadioxatriangulenium (ADOTA) dye as a solution to this problem. The lifetime of the ADOTA probe, about 19.4 ns, is much longer than most components of autofluorescence. Thus, it can be easily separated by time-correlated single-photon counting methods. Here, we demonstrate the suppression of autofluorescence in FCS using ADOTAlabeled hyaluronan macromolecules (HAs) with Rhodamine 123 added to simulate diffusing fluorescent background components. The emission spectrum and decay rate of Rhodamine 123 overlap with the usual sources of autofluorescence, and its diffusion behavior is well known. We show that the contributions from Rhodamine 123 can be eliminated by time gating or by fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy (FLCS). While the pairing of ADOTA and time gating is an effective strategy for the removal of autofluorescence from fluorescence imaging, the loss of photons leads to erroneous concentration values with FCS. On the other hand, FLCS eliminates autofluorescence without such errors. We then show that both time gating and FLCS may be used successfully with ADOTA-labeled HA to detect the presence of hyaluronidase, the overexpression of which has been observed in many types of cancer.

KW - Fluorescence

KW - Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

KW - Hyaluronan

KW - Time-correlated single-photon counting

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SN - 1618-2642

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