The selection of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors has the potential to compromise any insecticide-based malaria vector control program. To ensure that transmission-interrupting tools remain effective, and their choice is evidence based, insecticide surveillance and monitoring is essential. This study assessed and compared the residual efficacy of an organophosphate insecticide pirimiphos methyl (ACTELLIC 300 CS, 0-2-diethylamino-6- methylpyrimidin-4-yl 0, 0-dimethylphosphorothioate) at 1 g/m2 and the pyrethroid deltamethrin (K-Othrine WG 250, (S)-α-cyano-3phenoxybenzyl (IR, 3R)-3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylate) at 20 mg/m2 for indoor residual spraying on cement and mud-rendered walls inside houses. Insecticide susceptibility profiles of local malaria vectors were also assessed using World Health Organization standard protocols. The residual efficacy of ACTELLIC 300 CS on cement and mud walls lasted for 5 mo on both surfaces, with complete mortality of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto Giles (Kisumu strain) (Diptera: Culicidae) in cone assays. By 8 mo, the average residual effect of ACTELLIC 300 CS remained much better on cement walls than on mud walls but not significantly different from deltamethrin-treated cement walls. Anopheles funestus sensu stricto Giles was resistant to 0.05% deltamethrin and 0.01% bendiocarb but remained completely susceptible to 5% malathion and 4% dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane. The duplicated P450 genes, CYP6P9a and CYP6P9b, were found to be highly overexpressed in deltamethrin-resistant An. funestus s.s as compared with bendiocarbresistant individuals. Pirimiphos methyl CS is recommended for intra-domiciliary spraying for malaria control and could replace dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane within the context of an insecticide resistance management strategy.
- Insecticide resistance
- Vector control