Direct PCR amplification of DNA from human bloodstains, saliva, and touch samples collected with microFLOQ® swabs

Angie Ambers, Rachel Wiley, Nicole Novroski, Bruce Budowle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations


Previous studies have shown that nylon flocked swabs outperform traditional fiber swabs in DNA recovery due to their innovative design and lack of internal absorbent core to entrap cellular materials. The microFLOQ® Direct swab, a miniaturized version of the 4N6 FLOQSwab®, has a small swab head that is treated with a lysing agent which allows for direct amplification and DNA profiling from sample collection to final result in less than two hours. Additionally, the microFLOQ® system subsamples only a minute portion of a stain and preserves the vast majority of the sample for subsequent testing or re-analysis, if desired. The efficacy of direct amplification of DNA from dilute bloodstains, saliva stains, and touch samples was evaluated using microFLOQ® Direct swabs and the GlobalFiler™ Express system. Comparisons were made to traditional methods to assess the robustness of this alternate workflow. Controlled studies with 1:19 and 1:99 dilutions of bloodstains and saliva stains consistently yielded higher STR peak heights than standard methods with 1 ng input DNA from the same samples. Touch samples from common items yielded single source and mixed profiles that were consistent with primary users of the objects. With this novel methodology/workflow, no sample loss occurs and therefore more template DNA is available during amplification. This approach may have important implications for analysis of low quantity and/or degraded samples that plague forensic casework.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)80-87
Number of pages8
JournalForensic Science International: Genetics
StatePublished - Jan 2018


  • 4N6 FLOQSwabs
  • GlobalFiler™
  • GlobalFiler™ Express
  • bloodstain
  • direct PCR
  • microFLOQ
  • saliva
  • touch DNA


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