The ubiquitous dinucleotide P1 P4-di(adenosine-5ʹ) tetraphosphate (Ap4A) has been proposed to be involved in DNA replication and cell proliferation, DNA repair, platelet aggregation, and vascular tonus. A protein binding specifically to Ap4A is associated with a multiprotein form of DNA polymerase a (pol a2) in HeLa cells. The Ap4A binding protein from HeLa cells has been purified to homogeneity starting from pol a2 complex. The Ap4A binding protein is hydrophobic and is resolved from the pol a2 complex by hydrophobic interaction chromatography on butyl-Sepharose and subsequently purified to homogeneity by chromatography on Mono-Q and Superose-12 FPLC columns. The Ap4A binding activity elutes as a single symmetrical peak upon gel filtration with a molecular mass of 200 kDa. Upon polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under nondenaturing conditions, the purified protein migrates as a single protein of 200 kDa. Upon electrophoresis under denaturing conditions, the binding activity is resolved into two polypeptides of 45 and 22 kDa, designated as A! and A2, respectively. A, and A2 can be cross-linked using the homobifunctional cross-linking agent disuccinimidyl suberate. The cross-linked protein migrates as a single protein of 210 kDa on polyacrylamide gels under denaturing conditions, suggesting that these two polypeptides are subunits of a single protein. The purified protein binds Ap4A efficiently, and by Scatchard analysis, we have determined a dissociation constant of 0.2uM, indicating high affinity of Ap4A binding protein to its ligand. ATP is not required for the binding activity. The nonionic detergent Triton X-100 is necessary for stabilizing the purified protein. Amino acid composition analysis indicates that A, and A2 are distinct.