The objectives of these studies were to investigate and compare solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of two anthracyclines, idarubicin (IDA) and doxorubicin (DOX), against Pgp-mediated multiple drug resistance (MDR) in-vitro and in-vivo using different human and murine cancer cell models. IDA and DOX SLNs were developed from warm microemulsion precursors comprising emulsifying wax as the oil phase, and polyoxyl 20-stearyl ether (Brij 78) and D-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (Vitamin E TPGS) as the surfactants. Anionic ion-pairing agents, sodium taurodeoxycholate (STDC) and sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS), were used to neutralize the charges of the cationic anthracyclines and enhance entrapment of the drugs in the SLN. The in-vitro cytotoxicity results showed that the IC50 value of DOX NPs was 9-fold lower than that of free DOX solution in resistant P388/ADR cell line. In contrast, free IDA had comparable IC50 values as IDA NPs in Pgp-overexpressing P388/ADR and HCT-15 cells. In the in-vivo P388/ADR leukemia mouse model, the median survival time of DOX NPs was significantly greater than that of free DOX, and controls. In contrast, free IDA was equally as effective as IDA NPs in P388 and Pgp-overexpressing HCT-15 mouse tumor models. The cell uptake of IDA formulated as free IDA and IDA NPs was comparable in Pgp-overexpressing cells. In conclusion, DOX NPs could overcome Pgp-mediated MDR both in-vitro in P388/ADR leukemia cells and in-vivo in the murine leukemia mouse model. The present study suggests that our SLNS may offer potential to deliver anticancer drugs for the treatment of Pgp-mediated MDR in leukemia; however, selection of target drug may be very important.
- Multiple drug resistance (MDR)
- Solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN)