Development and preliminary effectiveness of a smartphone-based, just-in-time adaptive intervention for adults with alcohol misuse who are experiencing homelessness

Scott T. Walters, Eun Young Mun, Zhengqi Tan, Justin M. Luningham, Emily T. Hébert, Jason A. Oliver, Michael S. Businelle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Adults experiencing homelessness have much higher rates of alcohol misuse than housed individuals. This study describes the development and preliminary effectiveness of a smartphone-based, just-in-time adaptive intervention (JITAI) to reduce alcohol use among adults experiencing homelessness. Methods: We conducted a pilot trial (N = 41; mean age [SD] = 45.2 [11.5]; 19.5% women) of the Smart-T Alcohol JITAI where participants completed brief ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) each day, received personalized treatment messages following each EMA, and accessed on-demand intervention content for 4 weeks. The prediction algorithm and treatment messages were developed based on an independent but similar sample as part of the trial. We examined three drinking outcomes: daily drinking (yes/no), drinks per day, and heavy episodic drinking, controlling for scores on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) at baseline, age, and sex using quadratic growth curve models. Results: Over the 4-week period, participants showed a decline in all alcohol use outcomes. Participants also reported high levels of satisfaction with the JITAI. Conclusions: Use of the Smart-T Alcohol JITAI was well received and provided encouraging evidence that it may reduce any drinking, drinks per day, and heavy episodic drinking among adults experiencing homelessness.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAlcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2022

Keywords

  • alcohol
  • ecological momentary assessment
  • homeless
  • just-in-time adaptive intervention
  • treatment

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