Objective. To identify factors and entrepreneurial characteristics associated with entrepreneurial and intrapreneurial intentions among Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students in Iran. Methods. First, the Entrepreneurial-Intrapreneurial Pharmacist Questionnaire (EIPQ), which was developed in the United States, was translated from English to Persian. The paper-based Persian-EIPQ questionnaire was then tested in a convenience sample of student pharmacists enrolled in pharmacy schools in Iran. The entrepreneurial characteristics questionnaire was evaluated using exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation. Internal consistency was examined using Cronbach alpha. The association of demographics and educational variables and entrepreneurial characteristics with entrepreneurial and intrapreneurial intentions was determined using a multiple linear regression model. Results. A total of 504 surveys, 98.6% of the completed questionnaires received, were analyzed. A majority of the participants were female (75.8%) and from 18 to 25 years old (92.2%). Entrepreneurial intention had a positive and significant association with risk-taking propensity, leadership self-efficacy, autonomy, achievement motivation, and having an entrepreneur in the family. Intrapreneurial intention had a positive and significant association with risk-taking propensity, leadership self-efficacy, achievement motivation, people liking, attending a private school, and having an entrepreneur in the family. Conclusion. Based on the findings, student pharmacists with higher levels of risk-taking propensity, achievement motivation, leadership self-efficacy, autonomy, and people liking may be more likely to have greater levels of entrepreneurial and/or intrapreneurial intention.
- Entrepreneurial characteristics
- Entrepreneurial intention
- Intrapreneurial intention
- Student pharmacists