Demonstration of FRET in solutions

Sunil Shah, Zygmunt Gryczynski, Rahul Chib, Rafal Fudala, Aatmun Baxi, Julian Borejdo, Anna Synak, Ignacy Gryczynski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


We measured the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from Uranin (U) donor to Rhodamine 101 (R101) acceptor in propylene glycol. Steady-state fluorescence measurements show a significant difference between mixed and unmixed fluorophore solutions. In the solution with mixed fluorophores, fluorescence intensity of the U donor decreases and intensity of R101 fluorescence increases. This is visualized as a color change from green to orange. Fluorescence anisotropy of the mixture solution increases in the donor emission wavelength region and decreases in the acceptor emission wavelengths; which is consistent with FRET occurrence. Time-resolved (lifetime) measurements show a decrease of the U lifetime in the presence of R101 acceptor. In the intensity decay of R101 acceptor appears a negative component indicating excited state process. All these measurements prove the presence of FRET in U/R101 mixture fluorescence.

Original languageEnglish
Article number015001
JournalMethods and Applications in Fluorescence
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2016


  • 3D FRET
  • FRET in solution
  • Fluorescence
  • Forster distance


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