Objective: To evaluate and compare annual and biennial mammography screening rates across age, race, and geographic location (rural-urban) and to determine mammography screening persistence over 10 years among women enrolled in the West Virginia (WV) Medicaid Fee-for-Service (FFS) program. Methods: The WV Medicaid FFS administrative claims data for women recipients aged 40-64 from 1999 to 2008 were used for study purposes. Annual and biennial screening rates and persistence with screening were determined for women who were continuously enrolled in the WV Medicaid FFS program for respective calendar years. Results: A steady decline in the annual and biennial screening rates over a 10-year period (1999-2008) was observed among women recipients aged 40-64 years in the WV Medicaid FFS program, and screening persistence was also lower. Both annual and biennial screening rates and persistence varied by different demographic characteristics. Conclusions: Although mammography screening services are covered under Medicaid programs, underuse persists as a major concern. The results of this study emphasize the need to identify and address barriers to mammography screening in low-income rural populations.