The progression of murine mycoplasma pneumonia is dependent on T cells and other immune cells. The role of cytokines in immunity are complex, and identifying the network of cytokines produced after infection of mice is essential in dissecting the key cytokine cascades involved mycoplasma disease pathogenesis. In the present study, mRNA expression of 143 different cytokines, chemokines, or receptors were evaluated in lung tissues from both susceptible (BALB/c and C3H/HeN) and resistant (C57BL/6) mice after Mycoplasma pulmonis infection. To accomplish this, membrane-based cDNA microarrays were used to monitor changes mRNA expression in lungs. There was a clear association with disease susceptibility and development of cytokine mRNA expression. In addition to proinflammatory cytokines, mRNA expression of an anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-10, increased with disease severity, suggesting an attempt to moderate the severity of the inflammatory response. Furthermore, it is clear that an array of chemokines produced in susceptible mice could contribute to the recruitment and maintenance of inflammatory cells at the site of disease. In support of this, there was an increase in macrophage inflammatory protein 1β (MIP-1β; CCL4) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 2 (MCP-2; CCL8) mRNA levels from mycoplasma-infected mice and a corresponding accumulation of CD4+ Th cells expressing the MIP-1β/MCP-2 receptor, CCR5, in the lungs of mice. Furthermore, MIP-1β- and MCP-2-producing cells and CD4 + T cells were found to be in close association in pulmonary lesions. Thus, there was a significant cytokine response associated with disease pathogenesis, and these studies provide important leads and insights into ongoing cytokine- and chemokine-mediated processes in this persistent inflammatory disease.