CS1 (CRACC, CD319), a member of the CD2 family of cell surface receptors, is implicated in the activation of NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Previous studies showed that CS1 is also expressed on activated B cells. However, the functional role of CS1 in human B-lymphocytes is not known. Two isoforms of CS1, CS1-L and CS1-S, are expressed in human NK cells that differentially regulate NK cell function. CS1-L contains immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motifs in its cytoplasmic domain whereas CS1-S lacks immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motifs. In this study, we show that human B lymphocytes express only the CS1-L isoform, and its expression is up-regulated upon B cell activation with various stimulators. Moreover, anti-CS1 mAb strongly enhanced proliferation of both freshly isolated as well as activated B cells. The enhanced proliferation effects of CS1 were most prominent on B cells activated by anti-CD40 mAbs and/or hrIL-4. The effects of CS1 on B cell proliferation were shown on both naive and memory B cells. Human cytokine microarray and quantitative real-time PCR results indicated that CS1 activation enhanced mRNA transcripts of flt3 ligand, lymphotoxin A, TNF, and IL-14. Neutralizing Abs against lymphotoxin A, TNF-α, and/or flt3 ligand abolished the ability of CS1 on the B cell proliferation. These results suggest that activation of B lymphocytes, through surface CS1, may be mediated through secretion of autocrine cytokines and CS1 may play a role in the regulation of B lymphocyte proliferation during immune responses.