Introduction The governments of Haiti and the Dominican Republic have a binational agreement to work towards malaria elimination for the island of Hispaniola by the year 2020. Understanding malaria-related knowledge and behaviors can help inform elimination efforts. This study examined the association between social-behavioral factors, like bedtime and bed net ownership, with malaria seroconversion status among people in the Ouest and Sud-Est departments of Haiti. Methods In 2013, cross-sectional survey data (n = 377) and blood samples were collected from a convenience sample of individuals within community, clinic and school settings. Logistic regression models were constructed to examine associations between social-behavioral factors and malaria exposure, adjusting for potential confounders. Results Compared to people going to bed between 6 and 8 pm, those going to bed between 8 and 10 pm were 2.67 (OR, 95% CI: 1.16–6.14) times as likely to have been exposed to malaria. Participants who reported going to bed after 10 pm were 5.96 times as likely to have had previous malaria exposure (OR, 95% CI: 2.26–15.7), compared to 6–8 pm. No significant associations were found between malaria exposure and either insecticide use nor bed net ownership. Discussion These findings are consistent with suspected feeding behaviors of Anopheles albimanus, which prefers feeding at night and outdoors. Study findings may improve overall understanding of malaria transmission in Haiti and potentially guide future studies conducted in this region.