Objectives: During the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, increased anxiety and depression were reported, with mixed findings among individuals of different races/ethnicities. This study examines whether anxiety and depression increased during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the pre-COVD-19 period among different racial/ethnic groups in the US. Methods: The Health Information National Trend Surveys 5 (HINTS 5) Cycle 4 data was analyzed. We used the time when the survey was administered as the pre-COVID-19 period (before March 11, 2020, weighted N = 77,501,549) and during the COVID-19 period (on and after March 11, 2020, weighted N = 37,222,019). The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) was used to measure anxiety/depression and further compared before and during COVID-19. Separate multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to determine the association of the COVID-19 pandemic with anxiety/depression after adjusting for age, sex, insurance, income, and education. Result: A higher percentage of Non-Hispanic whites (NHW) with chronic conditions reported anxiety (24.3% vs. 11.5%, p = 0.0021) and depression (20.7% vs. 9.3%, p = 0.0034) during COVID-19 than pre-COVID-19. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of anxiety and depression for NHWs with chronic conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic was 2.02 (95% confidence interval of 1.10–3.73, p = 0.025) and 2.33 (1.17–4.65, p = 0.018) compared to NHWs who participated in the survey before the COVID-19. Limitations: Limited to the NHW US population. PHQ can only be used as the initial screening tool. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with an increased prevalence of anxiety and depression among NHW adults with chronic conditions, but not among people of color.
- Chronic conditions