Copan microFLOQ® Direct Swab collection of bloodstains, saliva, and semen on cotton cloth

Allison J. Sherier, Rachel E. Kieser, Nicole M.M. Novroski, Frank R. Wendt, Jonathan L. King, August E. Woerner, Angie Ambers, Paolo Garofano, Bruce Budowle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


The microFLOQ® Direct Swab was tested by sampling diluted blood, semen, and saliva stains deposited on cotton cloth. DNA typing was performed using the PowerPlex® Fusion 6C System by direct PCR or a modified direct PCR. Direct PCR of swabs sampled the center of a stain, compared to their respective edge samplings, and had higher profile completeness and total relative fluorescent units (RFU) for all dilutions of blood and semen stains tested. The modified direct PCR used template DNA eluted from the swab head using the Casework Direct Kit, Custom and washes either contained 1-thioglycerol (TG) additive or no TG. Modified direct PCR had mixed results for blood, saliva, and semen stains, with semen stains showing significant differences in profile completeness (5% and 1%) and total RFU (neat, 5% and 1%) with the addition of TG to the Casework Direct Reagent. No significant difference was seen in any dilution of blood or saliva stains processed with the modified direct PCR, but profile completeness and total RFU were improved overall compared to stains swabbed with cotton swabs or 4N6FLOQSwabs™. This study supports the hypothesis that the microFLOQ® Direct Swab is able to collect minute amounts of DNA from cotton cloth and may be considered as an alternate pre-screening methodology in forensic biology casework.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)45-54
Number of pages10
JournalInternational journal of legal medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2020


  • Casework Direct Kit, Custom
  • Direct PCR
  • MicroFLOQ® Direct Swab
  • PowerPlex® Fusion 6C
  • PowerQuant® System
  • Stains


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