The in situ lipid activator of rat liver glucocerebrosidase was investigated. Rat liver lysosomes were purified (42.9-fold relative to the crude homogenate) by sequential isopycnic centrifugation in sucrose and metrizamide gradients. Lipids were extracted with chloroform:methanol (2:1) and phospholipids were separated by one-dimensional thinlayer chromatography. The phospholipid content of the lysosome preparation was 0.28 μmol lipid phosphorus/mg protein. Phosphatidylcholine was present as the major non-acidic phospholipid (39.3%). Of the acidic phospholipids, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine were present in the greatest amounts (12.0 and 19.7%, respectively). The resolved phospholipids were tested separately and in the presence of a heat-stable factor from Gaucher spleen for their ability to reconstitute butanol-delipidated rat liver glucocerebrosidase activity. Alone or in the presence of the heat-stable factor, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol were the most effective activators of glucocerebrosidase. Bis(monoacylglyceryl) phosphate derived from rat liver tritosomes or rabbit lung macrophages was also effective in reconstituting β-glucosidase activity.