Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a leading, worldwide cause of death and disability due to pneumonia. Mycoplasma pulmonis infection in mice is an invaluable model for the study of host defenses against respiratory mycoplasmas in vivo. C3H/HeN mice are much more susceptible to acute inflammatory lung disease due to M. pulmonis than C57BL/6N mice, but little is known about the chronic disease in these mouse strains. We infected C3H/HeN and C57BL/6N mice with 104 CFU of M. pulmonis UAB CT and evaluated them at weekly intervals by quantitative mycoplasma culture of nasal passages, trachea, and lungs, assessment of lesion severity in nasal passages, trachea, and lungs, and determination of serum immunoglobulin classes and subclasses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that C3H/HeN mice had 2 to 5 logs more organisms in their lungs and far more severe lung disease than C57BL/6N mice through 63 days postinfection. Although both strains of mice developed the same classes of antibody, C3H/HeN mice had much greater anti-M. pulmonis immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses in the IgG1 and IgG2a subclasses than C57BL/6N mice. These results suggest that adaptive immunity does not effect resolution of chronic mycoplasma infection and disease in the lungs.