Studies were performed with the overall goal of testing the hypothesis that cholecystokinin (CCK), a peptide hormone released from the gastrointestinal tract in response to meal consumption, provides a metabolic signal which modulates LH secretion in response to changes in the body’s nutritional intake. In an initial study to document the effects of CCK on LH secretion in adult male rhesus monkeys, sulfated CCK-8 (7 and 15 μg/kg) was administered to six monkeys, and blood samples were collected from indwelling venous catheters. The 15-μg/kg dose of CCK elicited a rapid release of LH, with peak LH levels of 31.29 ± 7.19 ng/ml occurring within 5-15 min. To determine the CCK receptor type mediating the effect of CCK on LH secretion, specific CCK type-A (L-364, 718) and type-B (L-365, 260) receptor antagonists (1 mg/kg) were administered to five monkeys 15 min before CCK administration. The CCK-A antagonist completely blocked LH secretion in response to CCK, whereas the CCK-B antagonist had no effect. To assess whether endogenous CCK, released in response to food intake, stimulates LH secretion, six monkeys were fasted for 1 day and then provided with a normal meal of monkey chow (i.e. a refeed meal) the following day, with either no antagonist, CCK-A antagonist, or CCK-B antagonist administered 30 min before the meal. As previously demonstrated, meal consumption after a brief period of fasting caused a rapid stimulation of pulsatile LH secretion. The refeed meal led to a comparable stimulation of LH secretion regardless of whether monkeys received no antagonist (3.7 ± 0.44 LH pulses/9 h), CCK-A antagonist (3.33 ± 0.56 LH pulses/9 h), or CCK-B antagonist (4.0 ± 0.78 LH pulses/9 h). These results indicate that CCK can stimulate LH secretion in adult male rhesus monkeys, acting via type-A CCK receptors. However, endogenous CCK released in response to meal intake does not appear to be responsible for the meal-induced stimulation of LH secretion that occurs when monkeys are fed a normal meal after a brief period of fasting.