Characterization of 114 insertion/deletion (INDEL) polymorphisms, and selection for a global INDEL panel for human identification

Bobby L. LaRue, Robert Lagacé, Chien Wei Chang, Allison Holt, Lori Hennessy, Jianye Ge, Jonathan L. King, Ranajit Chakraborty, Bruce Budowle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Bi-Allelic Insertions and Deletions (INDELs) are a powerful set of genetic markers for Human Identification (HID). They have certain desirable features, such as low mutation rates, no stutter, and potentially small amplicon sizes that could prove effective in some circumstances. In this study, we analyzed the distribution of 114 INDELs in four North American populations (Caucasian, African American, Southwest Hispanic, and Asian) to estimate their distribution in major global populations. Of the 114 INDELs a primary panel of 38 candidate markers was selected that met the criteria of (1) a minimum allele frequency of greater than 0.20 across the populations studied; (2) general concordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) expectations; (3) relatively low FST based on the major populations; (4) physical distance between markers greater than 40 Mbp; and (5) a lack of linkage disequilibria between syntenic markers. Additionally, another 11 supplemental markers were selected for an expanded panel of 49 markers which met the above criteria, with the exception that they are separated at least by 20Mbp. The resulting panels had Random Match Probabilities that were at least 10-16 and 10-19, respectively, and combined FST values of approximately 0.02. Given these findings, these INDELs should be useful for HID.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)26-32
Number of pages7
JournalLegal Medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2014


  • Degraded DNA
  • Human genotyping
  • Identity testing
  • Population genetics
  • SNP
  • STR


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