The diverse structures of polyketide natural products are reflected by the equally diverse polyketide biosynthetic enzymes, namely polyketide synthases (PKSs). Three major classes of PKSs are known-noniterative type I PKSs, iterative type II PKSs and acyl carrier protein-independent type III PKSs, each of which consists of additional variants. One such variant is the noniterative type I PKS in which each PKS module lacks the cognate acyltransferase (AT) domain. The essential AT activity is instead provided by a discrete AT in trans. Termed "AT-less" type I PKSs, the loading of the malonate extender units by the discrete AT enzyme LnmG to each of the AT-less PKS modules of LnmI and LnmJ was confirmed experimentally for biosynthesis of the anticancer antibiotic leinamycin (LNM). The LNM PKS has since served as a model for the continuous discovery of numerous additional AT-less type I PKSs incorporating variable extender units. However, biochemical characterization of AT-less type I PKSs remains very limited, and the mechanism by which AT-less type I PKSs accommodate multiple extender units is unknown. This chapter provides the protocols used to establish and characterize the LNM PKS. Application of these methods to other AT-less type I PKSs should aid the biochemical characterization and hence possible exploitation of these unique PKSs for polyketide natural product structural diversity by combinatorial biosynthetic methods.