Alveolar macrophages (AM) are important host-defense cells and targets of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. However, the receptors mediating HIV-1 entry into AM are not completely characterised. We observed that, in addition to CD4 receptors, AM from healthy adults expressed low levels of CCR5, CCR3, and CXCR4 chemokine receptors by flow cytometry, and specific messenger RNA was detected for all three receptors by reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction. The macrophage monocytotropic (M-tropic; YU2) and dual-tropic (89.6) HIV-1 env-pseudotypes entered AM efficiently, as expected given CCR3 and CCR5 expression. However, the T-lymphocytotropic (T-tropic; HXB2) pseudotype did not enter AM despite expression of the appropriate chemokine coreceptor CXCR4. Incubation of AM with regulated on activation, normal T cells expressed and secreted (RANTES) significantly impaired entry of the M-tropic (YU2) HIV-1 pseudotype, whereas SDF-1β or eotaxin did not impair entry. The entry of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) pbjl.9 env-pseudotype into AM was not blocked by RANTES, SDF-1β, or eotaxin. The competence of these chemokine receptors for virus entry was confirmed in Cf2Th canine thymocytes cotransfected with the human CD4 and chemokine receptors. Entry of the M-tropic (YU2) HIV-1 pseudotype was shown to be mediated by either CCR3 or CCR5, the T-tropic (HXB2) HIV-1 pseudotype by CXCR4, and the dual-tropic (89.6) HIV-1 or the SIVpbjl.9 pseudotype by CCR5, CCR3, or CXCR4. Our data indicate that the mechanisms for HIV-1 entry are both receptor-specific and cell type-specific, and that chemokine receptor expression on AM does not fully explain cell susceptibility to different virus isolates.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology|
|State||Published - 1 Jan 1999|