Brain stem control of arterial pressure in chronic arterial baroreceptor-denervated rats

Ann M. Schreihofer, Satoru Ito, Alan F. Sved

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

61 Scopus citations

Abstract

Interruption of the baroreceptor reflex by transection of afferent nerves (sinoaortic denervation; SAD) or lesions of nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) elevates sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and arterial pressure (AP). However, within 1 wk, mean AP returns to normal despite the absence of baroreflexes. In this study, we examine central mechanisms that control AP in chronic baroreceptor-denervated rats. In urethane-anesthetized rats (1.5g/kg iv) after autonomic ganglionic blockade (5 mg/kg iv chlorisondamine), α1- adrenergic-mediated pressor responses (1-100 μg/kg iv phenylephrine) were not altered by chronic lesions of NTS, indicating vascular reactivity to sympathetic stimulation is normal. Transection of the spinal cord at T 1 profoundly decreased AP and was not further reduced by chlorisondamine in control or denervated rats. Inhibition of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) by microinjections of muscimol (100 pmol/side) decreased AP to levels not further reduced by chlorisondamine in control rats, rats with SAD, and rats with NTS lesions. Blockade of GABAA receptors in the RVLM (50 pmol/side bicuculline) increased AP similarly in control rats and denervated rats. In agreement, inhibition of the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM) by microinjections of muscimol or blockade of glutamatergic inputs (2.7 nmol/ side kynurenate) produced comparable increases in AP in control and denervated rats. These data suggest the RVLM continues to drive the SNA that regulates AP in the chronic absence of baroreceptor inputs. In addition, despite the absence of a tonic excitatory input from NTS, in chronic baroreceptor-denervated rats glutamatergic inputs drive the CVLM to tonically inhibit the RVLM. Baroreceptor-independent regulation of the ventrolateral medulla may underlie central mechanisms contributing to the long-term control of AP.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)R1746-R1755
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Volume289
Issue number6 58-6
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2005

Keywords

  • Caudal ventrolateral medulla
  • Kynurenic acid
  • Nucleus tractus solitarius
  • Rostral ventrolateral medulla
  • Sinoaortic denervation

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