The human genome encodes at least 42 different members of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily of growth factors. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are the largest subfamily of proteins within the transforming growth factor-β superfamily and are involved in numerous cellular functions including development, morphogenesis, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and extracellular matrix synthesis. This article first reviews BMPs and BMP receptors, BMP signaling pathways, and mechanisms controlling BMP signaling. Second, we review BMP and BMP receptor expression during embryonic ocular development/ differentiation and in adult ocular tissues. Lastly, future research directions with respect to BMP, BMP receptors, and ocular tissues are suggested.
- Bone morphogenetic protein receptors
- Bone morphogenetic protein signaling
- Bone morphogenetic proteins
- Ocular tissues