Beliefs and attitudes associated with Hookah smoking among a United States college population

Mary P. Martinasek, Linda G. Haddad, Christopher W. Wheldon, Tracey E. Barnett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: This study explores the differences among smokers of waterpipe tobacco in a college population to better inform campaigns to curb waterpipe use. METHODS: Participants included undergraduate and graduate students attending a liberal arts university in Florida. E-mail-based, cross-sectional surveys were collected in 2 sequential years. RESULTS: The majority of respondents (64%) reported having ever smoked a hookah, even if just 1–2 puffs. Of those who had ever smoked a hookah, 34% reported smoking a hookah within the previous 30 d. Constructs from the theory of reasoned action were all correlated with smoking behavior. The range of beliefs endorsed by smokers were more strongly associated with hookah-related attitudes compared with subjective norms. Concerns about health were stronger among never-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Young adult college students continue to engage in waterpipe tobacco smoking at high rates. Campaigns need to focus on subsets of smokers and nonsmokers, independently.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)370-379
Number of pages10
JournalRespiratory Care
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2017


  • Attitudes
  • Behavior
  • College students
  • Hookah smoking
  • Shisha
  • Subjective norm
  • Theory of reasoned action
  • Waterpipe tobacco smoking


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