Lymphocytes infiltrate the stroke core and penumbra and often exacerbate cellular injury. B cells, however, are lymphocytes that do not contribute to acute pathology but can support recovery. B cell adoptive transfer to mice reduced infarct volumes 3 and 7 d after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo), independent of changing immune populations in recipient mice. Testing a direct neurotrophic effect, B cells cocultured with mixed cortical cells protected neurons and maintained dendritic arborization after oxygen-glucose deprivation. Whole-brain volumetric serial two-photon tomography (STPT) and a custom-developed image analysis pipeline visualized and quantified poststroke B cell diapedesis throughout the brain, including remote areas supporting functional recovery. Stroke induced significant bilateral B cell diapedesis into remote brain regions regulating motor and cognitive functions and neurogenesis (e.g., dentate gyrus, hypothalamus, olfactory areas, cerebellum) in the whole-brain datasets. To confirm a mechanistic role for B cells in functional recovery, rituximab was given to human CD20+ (hCD20+) transgenic mice to continuously deplete hCD20+-expressing B cells following tMCAo. These mice experienced delayed motor recovery, impaired spatial memory, and increased anxiety through 8 wk poststroke compared to wild type (WT) littermates also receiving rituximab. B cell depletion reduced stroke-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and cell survival. Thus, B cell diapedesis occurred in areas remote to the infarct that mediated motor and cognitive recovery. Understanding the role of B cells in neuronal health and disease-based plasticity is critical for developing effective immune-based therapies for protection against diseases that involve recruitment of peripheral immune cells into the injured brain.
|Number of pages||11|
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|State||Published - 3 Mar 2020|
- Adaptive immunity
- B lymphocytes
- Focal stroke
- Serial two-photon tomography